February is the second month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. It is the shortest of the months, with only 28 days in common years and 29 days every fourth or leap year. Having only 28 days, February is the only month that can pass without having a full moon – as occurred this year (2018) when the last full moon was on January 31. February is also the third and last month of winter in the northern hemisphere, the equivalent of August, the last month of summer, in the southern hemisphere.
January and February did not exist in the old Roman calendar. The winter season was a monthless period and the year consisted of only ten months. These two months were added around 700 BC/BCE by Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome (after Romulus).
The name of the month comes from either the name of the old Roman god, Februus, or from februa, which signifies the festivals of purification celebrated in Rome on February 15 (a full moon in the old Roman lunar calendar).
The Anglo Saxon names for February were Solmonath, meaning Mud Month, and sometimes Kalemonath, named after cabbage. Solmonath was the usual name – and we don’t have to look too far to see why. These photos were taken down our local lanes this week. No shortage of mud here!
A Victorian painting by Benjamin Williams Leader entitled February Fill Dyke (first exhibited in 1881) became very popular when later shown at the Royal Jubilee Exhibition. However, the painting was of a November evening after rain! (What a swizz!) You can see the painting here.
Solmonath has sometimes also been thought by some to mean Sun Month – the month when the sun seems to be (noticeably) coming back from its winter retreat ‘down under’. That makes sense, since ‘sol’ means ‘sun’ in Latin. And, according to the Venerable Bede, February was known as Cake Month – when Anglo Saxons offered cake to their gods.
In the UK, although February can still be cold, many of us start looking forward to spring. Some parts of the country can be covered in snow, while others see little but grey skies, wind and rain. One day can be nice and sunny, and the next day it snows – as these photos from the last couple of days show:
Garden in the sunshine, February 25:
Garden and lane in the snow, February 26:
The unpredictable nature of the month forms the basis of this rhyme, which often means little to people, even in Britain:
February fill the dyke
Be it black or white
But if it’s white
It’s better to like
So, whether the month is rainy and black/grey or white and snowy, the dykes still fill up. And what is a dyke…? Simply another old English name for a ditch. And across the countryside, farmers have dug thousands of drainage ditches over the years, Here are some photos of a couple of dykes I took around our lanes a couple of days ago:
The birth flowers for February are the viola/violet and the primrose:
February’s birthstone is the amethyst:
The birth signs for February are Aquarius (until the 19th) and Pisces (from the 20th onwards):
In the UK there are a few special days to note, some of which are also celebrated elsewhere in the world. As I’ve written posts about some of them in past years, I won’t repeat them here.The two main ones are Shrove Tuesday, commonly known as Pancake Day and celebrated as Mardi Gras in some countries.
and Saint Valentines Day.
To finish, here are just a few of the many famous historic events that took place in February:
- February 7, 1964. The Beatles first visit to the USA:
2. February 8, 1587. Mary Queen of Scots was beheaded on the orders of Queen Elizabeth I of England:
3. February 12, 1809. President Abraham Lincoln of the U.S.A was born:
4. February 21, 1804. British engineer, Richard Trevithick, demonstrated the first steam engine on wheels
5. February 23, 1863. Lake Victoria in Africa was declared to be the source of the Nile by British explorers John Speke and JA Grant:
One more day to go and it will be March. Let’s hope the sun finds its way back soon!