A Visit to Caernarfon Castle

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This is the third of my posts about some of the places I visited in North Wales the week before last. The first was about the beautiful Bodnant Gardens and the second about Conwy Castle, one of the three different castles we went to see. Today’s post is about Caenarfon Castle along the coast to the south-west of Conwy.

North Wales Castles

Caernarfon was one of a series of castles built by King Edward I of England after the second Welsh war of independence in 1282. Building began in 1283 and the castle became his royal palace-fortress instead of the originally intended castle at Conwy.

For the Welsh, Caernarfon was already an important and mythical place. The Romans built a fortress here (Segontium)  in AD 77 and legend holds that a Roman emperor called Macsen Wledig (Magnus Maximus) married a local princess. It is thought that this link with the powerful Romans was the reason why Edward I chose Caernarfon as his royal ‘capital’ and had it built with colour-banded walls, emulating the walls of Roman cities and perhaps even Constantinople itself.

Following the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, a motte and bailey castle was built close to the site where the Edwardian castle would one day stand. Many of these early castles were erected quickly, all over England, generally constructed of wood at first and replaced by stone some time later. Motte means ‘mound’, which could have been a natural one, or one raised specifically for the purpose of supporting the keep, or fortified tower. Below the motte would be the bailey (an enclosure or courtyard) in which the kitchens, stables and storehouses would be situated. Here is an examples of an English motte and bailey castle, just to show what they looked like. Note, this is not the one at Caernarfon. There is little evidence of that left.

Carisbrook motte and bailey castle. Auhor: Charles D.P. Killer. Commons
Carisbrook motte and bailey castle. Auhor: Charles D.P. Killer. Commons

It is thought that the motte of the Norman castle at Caernarfon was incorporated into Edward I’s castle, although the location of the bailey is uncertain.

The design of Caernarfon Castle is rather like the number 8 – it’s been described as having and hour-glass shape (plan below). The coloured banding of the stone and the octagonal towers make it an impressive site from a distance, especially viewed from the Menai Strait. Unfortunately, it was a grey and miserable day when we went to Caernafon, so the castle has a particularly dark and menacing appearance. The main entrance shown in one of these photos is the King’s Gate.

This is a general plan of the  castle:

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A. Site of the Watergate  B. Eagle Tower  C. Queen’s Tower  D. Well Tower E. Lower Ward F. Great Hall  G. Kitchens  H. Chamberlain Tower  I. King’s Gate  J. Upper Ward  KBlack Tower  L. Granary Tower  M. North- East Tower  N. Cistern Tower  O. Queen’s Gate

And here is a mix of photos from inside the castle, mostly from around the Upper and Lower Wards:

The Eagle Tower is one of the greatest of the castle’s towers and there are interesting displays in there. In the photos above it’s the one with the pennants flying. It was probably designed to provide accomodation for Sir Otto de Grandison, the king’s lieuteanant. Inside is a basement and three storeys and outside, a very weathered eagle sits on top of the west turret (left hand side turret on the photo). No? I could hardly see it, either…

According to tradition, Edward’s son, Prince Edward of Caernarfon (and future Edward II) was born in Caernarfon Castle on April 28 1284. In 1301 he was created Prince of Wales:

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Edward I creating his son, the later Edward II, Prince of Wales in 1301. Source: British Library (scanned). Author, User:Lampman. Public Domain

Since then, the title has been traditionally held by the eldest son of the monarch. On the 28 July 1958, the investiture of Prince Charles, eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II took place in Caernarfon Castle. The circular disc in the photos above marks the place.  This picure from Wikimedia Commons shows a wider view of the area:

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Caernarfon Castle, site of the Investiture of Prince Charles in 1958 . The Black Tower is seen behind it. Author: Albertistvan. Commons

The Queen’s Tower (C on the plan) and two floor of the Chamberlain’s Tower (H) now house the regimental museum of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers. Through the walls from one tower to the other are lots of information panels. We didn’t go into this area on this occasion, but for anyone interested in mlitary history it’s worth a visit.

For two centiuries after Edward’s time, his arrangements for the governing of Wales still held. There were periodic revolts, as the one in 1400-15 when the castle was besieged by the Welsh supported by the French.

The ascension of the Tudors, who were Welsh, eased hostilities between England and Wales and castles became less important. The Tudors changed the way that Wales was governed and castles became neglected. Many fell into decay. Although Caernarfon’s walls remained in good condition, the roofs and much of the timber rotted. Domestic buildings were stripped of anything of value (e.g. glass and iron) but the castle was in good enough condition to be garrisoned by Royalists troops during the civil war of 1642-49.

As with Conwy, there is so much that could be said about this castle. But enough is enough for one post.

A Fresh Cadaver – Flash Fiction for Aspiring Writers

Flash Fiction for for Aspiring Writers (FFfAW) is a writing challenge hosted by Priceless Joy. The challenge asks us to write a piece of fiction from the photo prompt provided in around 100- 150 words – give or take 25 words. It encourages participants to comment, constructively, on other entries, so supporting each other’s writing. If you’d like to join in with this challenge, follow the link to see what to do. The challenge runs from Wednesday to Wednesday every week.

Here is this week’s prompt, kindly provided by Sonya:

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. . . and this is my story:

A pale moon cast just enough light to stop Charlie from tripping over Bert’s feet as they traipsed along the narrow path through Lord Harcourt’s estate. Why he’d let himself be talked into this, he didn’t know. It had seemed a good idea at the time – after a few pints at the ‘Duck and Goose’.

‘Light the lamp,’ Bert hissed over his shoulder. ‘We’re almost there.’

The lamplight threw an eerie glow over the small graveyard as they dug rapidly down to the coffin of his Lordship’s recently interred son. Charlie’s heart pounded as he thought of the consequences of being caught in the act of body snatching. Imprisonment would likely be the death of him.

‘Let’s hope old Jacob’s still awake,’ Bert whispered, as they lugged the body back to the horse and cart on the nearby lane. ‘We paid him enough to keep watch, for Gawd’s sake.’

‘Evening, gents’, one of the blue-clad Peelers intoned as they reached the lane. ‘Pleasant night for a spot of digging.’

Word Count: 170

Note: ‘Peelers’ was the name given to the earliest policemen in the U.K. The name comes from that of Robert Peel, the person responsible for the Metropolitan Police Act of 1829  which provided permanently appointed and paid Constables to protect London as part of the Metropolitan Police Force. The earliest ‘Peelers’ wore blue tail-coats and top hats and each carried a truncheon, handcuffs and a rattle to raise the alarm. Rattles were later replaced by whistles. Later on the Peelers’ nickname was replaced by ‘bobbies’ – the shortened name/nickname for Robert.

If you’d like to view other entries, click the blue frog below:

For anyone interested, here’s some information I put together about body snatching, mostly from Wikipedia:

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Body snatchers at work – painting on the wall of the Old Crown Inn, Pinicuik, Midlothian, Scotland. Author: Kim Traynor. Commons

Body snatching is the secret disinterment of corpses from graveyards. The people who practised body snatching were often called ‘resurrectionists’ or ‘resurrection men’, and in the UK  during the 18th and 19th centuries, they were commonly employed by anatomists to exhume bodies of the recently dead for either dissection or use in anatomy lectures in medical schools.

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Tom Nero’s body is dissected after her has been hanged. Author: William Hogarth, 1697-1764. Public Domain

Before the Anatomy Act of 1832, the only legal supply of corpses for anatomical purposes were the bodies of those condemned to death and dissection by the courts. Those sentenced to dissection were often guilty of harsher crimes. Such sentences did not provide enough corpses for medical purposes, and with the expansion of medical schools at least 500 cadavers were needed yearly.

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Burke was hanged for mudering the poor, lost and lame of Edinburgh and supplying their bodies to anatomists for dissection. Credit: Wellcome images (operated by the Wellcome Trust, UK). Commons

Interfering with a grave was classed as misdemeanour at common law – not a felony, so only punishable with a fine and imprisonment, rather than transportation or execution. It was a lucrative enough business to counter the risks of detection. Burke was hanged because he actually murdered his victims.

Body snatching became so frequent that many relatives and friends of the deceased kept watch over the body before and after burial to stop it being violated. Sometimes, graves were protected by a framework of iron bars, or iron and stone devices, called mortsafes.

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One of two specimens of mortsafe in Greyfriars Kirkyard, Edinburgh. Author: Kim Taylor. Commons
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A motsafe near Aberdeen, Scotland. Author: Parrot of Doom. Commons

***

Castles of North Wales: Conwy

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Conwy Castle and car park from the Town walls, viewed from the south west. Source: geograph.org.uk. Author: David Dixon. Creative Commons

The castles of King Edward I (1272-1307) in North Wales are amongst the finest medieval buildings in Britain. They were all built from scratch, often concurrently, in the unsettled aftermath of war. During my trip to Wales last week I’ve been to see just three of these castles. The simple map below shows their locations. Beaumaris is on the Island of Anglesey, across the Menai Straits:

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Map showing three North Wales castles. Base map from Image:uk map,svg. Author: Paul at wts.wikivoyage. Wikimedia Commons.

Conwy Castle was built on a new site in the spring of 1283 as part of a ring of fortresses encircling the Welsh heartland of Snowdonia in Gwynedd. It followed Edward’s victory of his second campaign to subdue the Prince of Wales, Llwelyn ap Gruffudd. There had been conflicts in this region for many years between the Plantagenet kings of England (John 1199-1210 and Henry III 1216-72) and the princes of Gwynedd – notably Llwelyn ab Iorwerth, also known as Llwelyn the Great. (ab/ap are derived from the Welsh word mab, which means ‘son of”.)

Neither John nor Henry challenged the Prince of Gwynedd successfully, and on Edward’s succession in 1272 the prince’s refusal to do homage to the English king resulted in the war of 1276 -77. Edward’s victory was rapid – if, ultimately, inconclusive – but his second war (1282-3) proved more decisive.

The castle was built as part of a wider project to create the walled town of Conwy in order to control an important crossing point over the River Conwy. The whole project cost £15,000 – equivalent to £45 million today. The castle was intended as a centre for the administration for the area, but Caernarfon became the shire town and assumed that role. Edward only stayed at Conwy once.

Here are a couple of pictures of a model on display inside the castle. They show the castle and part of the walled town as they would have originally looked. Note the direct access to the River Conwy:140

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The plan below shows the castle from the same (south) side as the last picture. The plan is roughly rectangular, with four towers spaced regularly along each side. The bulging outer (south) wall can be seen clearly on each, probably the result of the builders following the contours of the rocky outcrop. The great hall and chapel in the outer ward curves in line with this wall. The four towers closest to the river have small, round turrets overlooking the inner ward, where the royal apartments were located.

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Conwy Castle plan. Source: Cadw. Open Government Licence. Wikimedia Commons.

The castle is noted for its high towers and curtain walls, and its excellent state of preservation:

Inside the imposing outer shell the castle contains the most intact set of residential buildings left by medieval English monarchs in Wales or England. The outer ward – 2/3 of the main castle area – contains the great hall and chapel, as well as the chambers, stables and kitchen that served the garrison.

This is the outer ward. The two photos, bottom left are of the great hall and chapel. The chapel is at the far end, where the arched window can be seen.

The inner ward has the private chambers (top left photo below) and the royal chapel. A water gate, leading to the east barbican (gateway) provided private access for the king and queen. Here are some photos taken mostly from around the battlements, with an odd one or two inside the towers. Most look down into the inner and outer wards, or show views out across the River Conwy:

The suspension bridge ascross the R. Conwy (middle bottom) was designed by Thomas Telford and completed in 1826.

I’ve missed out so much detail about Conwy Castle, as well as many of the photos we took, otherwise this post would become a marathon.

Word of the Week (WOW) – Ubiquitous

wow

Word of the Week (WOW) is a weekly challenge created by Heena Rathore P. It’s a fun way to improve vocabulary by learning new words every week.

To participate, simply do a post with your word and leave the link as a comment on Heena’s WOW post for this week (above link). It’s a nice post to do and will give you some practise with a dictionary, of which there are several online. Illustrations are up to you.

I’m up to the letter U this week so I’ll be looking for a good word beginning with V

So, here is my WOW for this week:

ubiquitous

 Word: 

Ubiquitous

Pronunciation

u·biq·ui·tous  [juːˈbɪkwɪtəs]

Audio Link: 

Ubiquitous

Part of Speech: 

Adjective

Related Forms:

Adverb: ubiquitously 

Noun: ubiquitousness; ubiquity

 Meaning:

Existing or being everywhere, especially at the same time; omnipresent: ubiquitous fog

A foggy day in San Francisco. Author Daniel Ramirez, Honolulu, USA
A foggy day in San Francisco. Author Daniel Ramirez, Honolulu, USA

Synonyms:

omnipresent, ever present, pervasive, all-over, everywhere, universal, common or garden (chiefly British) commonplace, everyday, familiar, frequent, ordinary, quotidian, routine, usual , widespread, generalised, scattered

Antonyms: 

extraordinary, infrequent, rare, seldom, uncommon, unfamiliar, unusual

Word Origin:

“Turning up everywhere,” 1837, from  ubiquity + ous. The earlier word was ubiquitary (1580s), from Modern Latin uubiquitarious from ubique

Use in a Sentence:

1. The police presence was ubiquitous in Edinburgh during the protests at the start of the G8 summit.

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Edinburgh protests at the start of the G8 summit. Author: Sam Fentress. Commons

2. (Adverb use) Denim is used ubiquitously in the clothes industry:

Hand Sanding. Author: Fahed Faisal. Commons
Hand Sanding. Author: Fahed Faisal. Commons

3. McDonald’s has a ubiquitous presence in the world.

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McDonalds in Times Square. Uploaded by Hecki2. Public Domain

If you’d like to see more interesting words visit Heena’s page:

Word Treasure

Happy Father’s Day

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In the United Kingdom, Father’s Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of June, in keeping with the United States, where the custom originated, and many other parts of the world. This is in contrast to Mothers’ Day, which has a very different history in the U.S. and the U.K. (Happy Mother’s Day). Many countries outside of Britain celebrate Mothers’ Day in May, whereas in Britain the date varies according to the date on which Easter falls that year. Most often it falls in March.

Father’s Day is a day to honour fathers and father figures, including grandfathers and fathers-in-law. Many people make a special effort to visit their fathers or to send them a card or gifts. As for Mothers’ Day in Britain, children spend time making their own cards, and gifts tend to be the same as many dads will get for Christmas – socks, slippers, ties and various items of clothing. Sometimes mugs are bought with slogans like ‘The World’s Best Dad’ or simply ‘Dad’ written on them. Items like T-shirts, mouse mats, bags and T-shirts are sometimes offered to dads with photographs of the children printed on them. As for giving flowers… In the U.S. fathers were traditionally given the gift of white or red roses. The rose is the official flower for Father’s Day. Wearing a red rose signifies a living father, while a white one represents a deceased father. I haven’t heard of roses being given here in the U.K. but that doesn’t mean the custom isn’t observed at all.

For some dads in the U.K. Father’s Day can be a day for being taken out and treated to a pint or two down at the pub. Some families make more of things and the ‘treat’ could be a meal out somewhere special, or one of the popular ‘Father’s Day’ experiences, like driving a rally car, tank, fire engine, or even an aeroplane. Some children pay for Dad to have a golf, football or cricket lesson with a celebrity coach.

A father holding a necktie cookie on Father's Day. Author: Dean Michaud, originally posted on Flickr, terms compatible with Commons.
A father holding a necktie cookie on Father’s Day. Author: Dean Michaud, originally posted on Flickr, terms compatible with Commons.

There are two versions regarding the origins of a special day to honour fathers in the United States. Some people maintain that it was first introduced in 1910 by a woman called Sonora Smart Dodd, who was inspired by the work of Anna Jarvis, the woman who had pushed for Mother’s Day celebrations. Sonora’s father raised six children by himself after the death of their mother – which was uncommon at that time, as many widowers placed their children in the care of others or quickly married again – and Sonora felt that her father deserved recognition for what he had done. The first Father’s Day was held in June 1910, and was officially recognized as a holiday in 1972 by President Nixon.

Others in the U.S. say that Grace Golden Clayton from Fairmont, West Virginia, should be credited with the idea of Father’s Day, after she suggested a day to celebrate fatherhood in 1908, following the anguish of the Monongah mine disaster in December 1907. Officially, 362 men died, in that disaster, 250 of them fathers, leaving more than a thousand children without a dad. It was America’s worst mining ­accident. Most of the men were Italian migrants and the actual death toll is estimated at nearer 500.

Grace Golden Clayton, whose father was killed in the tragedy, suggested a service of commemoration for this lost generation to the pastor of her local Methodist chapel, and the first Father’s Day took place on July 5, 1908. But Grace’s idea did not spread outside this isolated mining settlement. It took off two years later, after Sonora Smart Dodd’s campaign.

Father’s Day again fell into disuse until the 1930s, and then slowly gained official recognition. President Richard Nixon proclaimed it a national holiday in 1972.

I have to confess that until I looked this up, I didn’t know the origins of Father’s Day in the U.S. I knew the custom started in America but, like many other people, I assumed it was either another money making ploy on behalf of the gift and card industry, or a way of keeping things equal with Mother’s Day – which is partly true. In our house, our children usually come round with presents. This year, they’ll probably start arriving later this afternoon. The usual gift is some type of malt whisky, although sometimes there will also be the odd box of chocolates. Our youngest son, who works in various places abroad, often sends some kind of plant for our garden via Interflora or suchlike. We have lots of  plants and flowers that started life in wicker baskets, and they’re doing very nicely.

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One last note or two…

In Germany, Father’s Day (Vatertag) or Men’s Day (Männertag)  is celebrated differently from other parts of the world. Groups of men go off into the woods with a wagon of beer, wines and meats. Heavy drinking is common on that day and traffic accidents tend to rise, causing police and emergency services to be on high alert. Some right-wing and feminist groups have asked for the banning of the holiday. Father’s day with a kick, I’d say!

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A Hiking Tour on Father’s Day. Author: Steffen Gebbhart at Wikimedia. Public Domain

In China, Father’s Day used to be on August 8. This was because the Chinese word for 8 is ‘ba’ and the colloquial word for father is ‘ba-ba’. It has now been moves to the third week in June to keep in line with other countries.

***

Beautiful Bodnant

080This week, I am away from home (with Husband, of course) staying at a hotel in Chester, very close to the Welsh border. This is an ideal place from which I can visit my family in Lancashire and Wales as well as revisiting some of the wonderful castles along the North Wales coast and the Roman and medieval sites around the city of Chester itself.

Oddly enough, our first visit was to somewhere quite unplanned. Whilst visiting my aunt and uncle at Penrhyn (in the county of Conwy) along the coast of North Wales, we decided to take a trip to Bodnant Gardens, nestling in the foothills of Snowdonia, just five miles inland from their house.

Bodnant has been described as one of the world’s most “magical” gardens. The scenery is quite dramatic and there are historic plant collections and awesome trees. Every season presents wonderful species and the changing colours are spectacular.

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A single post could not do justice to the history and evolution of the Gardens, and even today, expansion and improvement continue. Regarding the history, I will simply summarise things by saying that Bodnant Hall was built in 1792 and was landscaped with native trees:

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A mill was built down in the Dell (valley) to serve the needs of the estate, but it was not until the Hall was bought by industrialist Henry Pochin in 1874, that the gardens began to really take shape. It was he who planted the giant conifers in the Dell, created the famous Laburnum Arch and built the Poem Mausoleum as a resting place for himself and his family.

Since Pochin’s time the Gardens have considerably grown and new species continuously introduced. Plants were brought back by 19th and early 20th century explorers, including towering American redwoods and gorgeous Himalayan primulas, poppies and lilies.

The Gardens were first opened up to the public by Pochin’s daughter Laura, following her father’s death in 1895. On Laura’s death, management of the gardens passed to her son, Henry McLaren and stayed within that family until 1949 when they were handed over to The National Trust.

We’ve visited Bodnant several times before, at different times of the year, and have always been delighted with the displays. This month, the blooms are spectacular and I’ve never seen the Laburnum Arch look better. My aunt particularly loves the many different varieties of roses.  Here are some photos we took:

On this occasion we didn’t manage to get down to the Dell, as my aunt was having problems with a sprained ankle, so we stayed relatively close to the Hall and the different gardens there. The following photos show some of the displays and views we saw. The Laburnam Arch was absolutely stunning. And yes, it’s me and Husband ambling along inside…

My next post will be about the first of the wonderful Welsh castles we visited. We’ll be back home on Sunday, so the others will be done sometime next week. Well, that’s the plan…

Three Quotes Challenge – Day 3

shutterstock_153770255I’ve been nominated by my favourite travel blog thesnowmeltssomewhere to take part in the Three Quotes Challenge. circulating at the moment. The Snow Melts Somewhere is a great blog for anyone who likes to see photos and read about beautiful places around the world and her blog is well worth following.

The quotes can be on any subject and could be a different theme on each of the three days if you wish. The ‘golden whisk’ referred to is only figurative, but I’ve added my own little image (even though it isn’t exactly golden) courtesy of Pixabay.

The challenge:

Post a quote for 3 consecutive days.

Rules:

~ Thank the person who nominated you

~ Pass the “golden whisk” on to 3 people

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I decided to do all three quotes of my quotes about writing because there are so many that I like.  This is my third one:

rabbit quote

I suppose I just find this one funny as well as being very true

These are my three lovely nominees:

Norma at Emovere

Suganiya at Infinite Passion

Jack R. Cotner

Allergic to “E” Challenge

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Here I was, enjoying a nice, relaxing holiday in Wales, when I suddenly found a pingback on my About page that gave me a bit of a jolt. I’d left home at the weekend having scheduled my last two posts for the Three Quoted Challenge, and then I  found I had another little task to do – and only 24 hours to do it or I’d wallow in the Page of Lame for ever. Ouch… the shame of such a thing!

I must (seriously) thank the lovely Yinglan for thinking of me for this challenge. And it is quite some challenge to write a paragraph without using the most common vowel in the English language. It means that so many everyday words become taboo. Deep thinking is required…

These are the rules:

1) Write a whole paragraph ( a paragraph sounds easy right?) without any word containing the letter “e” (still easy?)
2) By reading this you are already signed up.
3) Challenge at least five bloggers to do the challenge. They must do it within 24 hours or it is considered as failure.
4) If you fail or pass, suffer in the Page of Lame.
5) If you win, wallow in the Page of Fame.

So I’ve come up with a rushed little effort, which I realise is an odd sort of ‘paragraph’. But I can swear that no naughty little e’s have crept into it:

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On a sunny May morning, Matilda Rowbothom had an unusual visitor. A blackbird, all plump and glossy, had flown in through an upstairs window, trilling its happy song.

‘How do you do?’ Matilda said, not knowing any blackbird talk.

Blackbird sang again and said, ‘I am Basil, top bird about town. I think you and I should talk.’

‘It’s good to know you, sir,’ Matilda said, struck by this absurd situation. A talking bird, of all things! ‘What can I bring you this sunny, May day? A crumb or two, mayhap?’

‘I thank you, no. It’s not a crumb I want, but you…. to marry this day,’

‘What an idiotic plan,’ was all Matilda could say. ‘A girl and a bird … how simply absurd!  And what would folks say?’

‘But what would folks say to a girl marrying a gallant knight?’ Blackbird said, instantly turning into a tall, muscular man in shining black armour.

Matilda took Sir Basil Draycott’s arm and said, ‘Sir, I’ll marry you right now, on this sunny, May day.

***

And here are my five nominees, all chosen because I think they could make a good job of this challenge:

Mara Fields

GiffordmacShane

Nitin Nair

Alex F 

williamleeone

Three Quotes Challenge – Day 2

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I’ve been nominated by my favourite travel blog thesnowmeltssomewhere to take part in the Three Quotes Challenge. The Snow Melts Somewhere is a great blog for anyone who likes to see photos and read about beautiful places around the world and her blog is well worth following.

The quotes can be on any subject, and could be a different theme on each of the three days if you wish. The ‘golden whisk’ referred to is only figurative, but I’ve added my own little image (even though it isn’t exactly golden) courtesy of Pixabay.

The challenge:

Post a quote for 3 consecutive days.

Rules:

~ Thank the person who nominated you

~ Pass the “golden whisk” on to 3 people

hand-174855_640

 I’ve now decided to stick with quotes about writing, and this is my second one:

baby elephant quote

Some years ago I read just about all of David Edding’s books. I was really into fantasy then, and I found his characterisation brilliant. Sadly, he died in 2009. This quote makes me laugh every time I read it…and think about how true it is!

These are my three nominees:

Norma at Emovere

Suganiya at Infinite Passion

Jack R. Cotner

I hope you can all accept.

Word of the Week (WOW) – Tenacious

wow

Word of the Week (WOW) is a weekly challenge created by Heena Rathore P. It’s a fun way to improve vocabulary by learning new words every week.

To participate, simply do a post with your word and leave the link as a comment on Heena’s WOW post for this week (above link). It’s a nice post to do and will give you some practise with a dictionary, of which there are several online. Illustrations are by no means necessary, but it’s up to you.

I’m up to the letter T this week so I’ll be looking for a good word beginning with U

So, here is my WOW for this week:

tenacious

 Word: 

Tenacious

Pronunciation

te•na•cious [tuhney-shuh s]

Audio Link: tenacious  (Not much difference between the UK and US pronunciation with this word)

Part of Speech: 

Adjective

Related Forms:

Adverb: te·na·cious·ly

Noun: te·na·cious·ness

Noun: tenacity

Noun: tenacity: the quality of being tenacious

 Meaning:

1. Holding fast, or keeping a firm hold, often followed by of, e.g. a tenacious grip on my arm

2. Highly retentive, e.g. a tenacious memory.

3. Persistent, stubborn, or obstinate.

4.  Adhesive or sticky; viscous or glutinous.

5. Holding together; cohesive; not easily pulled apart; tough.

Synonyms:

1. Stubborn, dogged, determined, persistent, sure, firm, adamant, staunch, resolute, inflexible, strong-willed, steadfast, unyielding, obstinate, intransigent, immovable, unswerving, obdurate, stiff-necked, pertinacious, tight, forceful, unshakable

2. Synonyms for adhesive meaning (4): clinging, sticky, glutinous, gluey, mucilaginous (e.g. tenacious catarrh in the nasal passage and lungs).

Antonyms:  

Wavering, changeable, vacillating, yielding, flexible, irresolute

Word Origin

Early 17th century: from Latin tenaxtenac- (from tenere ‘to hold’) + ious

Use in a Sentence:

1. It was sad that a man with such a tenacious memory as Albert should succumb to acute dementia so early in life:

A man diagnosed as suffering fromacute dimentia. Credit: Welcome Trust. Creative Commons
A man diagnosed as suffering from acute dementia. Credit: Welcome Trust. Creative Commons

2. (Adverb use) King Alfred’s men fought tenaciously against the Danes to save their kingdom:

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3. (Noun use) David Beckham’s tenaciousness and commitment to soccer makes him one of the truly great players:

1999_FA_Cup_Final_Beckham_corner
1999 FA Cup Final Bechham corner. Author: Michael Cairns. Creative Commons

4. A ladybird goes after its garden prey in a tenacious manner:

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